In the world of product design and manufacturing, the bill of materials (BOMs) is a critical product information record for both the engineering and manufacturing teams. Managing BOMs with the wrong tools can cause product errors, delays and compliance failures. In this whitepaper, we outline the problems with manual BOM management tools like spreadsheets and email and compare them to a dedicated BOM management system. Bill of Material (BOM) Management topics covered are BOM management challenges such as change, revision and compliance management, communication issues with project teams, suppliers and contract manufacturers, and comparison of manual vs. automated BOM management tools.